The last decades of the nineteenth century in Spain witnessed, after the reign of Amadeo de Saboya, the First Republic of 1873 that came to an end with the coup d’état of General Pavia; the pronouncement in Sagunto that, at the end of 1874, brought the restoration of Alfonso XII; the Constitution of 1876; the bipartisanship of conservatives and liberals; and, after the defeat against the United States of America, the loss of Cuba, the Philippines and Puerto Rico in 1898. Among the inventions of the time: aspirin, the vaccine against rabies, the gasoline vehicle, the telephone, the gas water heater or the cinematograph. In those years are published the adventures of Captain Nemo in the Nautilus by Jules Verne, Tomás Bretón opens in Madrid «La verbena de la Paloma», Vincent Van Gogh paints «Sunflowers» and in Brussels the Art Nouveau is born.
Arturo Pedro Nolasco Herrero Compañy was born on November 23, 1881 at No. 1, carrer Sant Pere, Benilloba. His father, Daniel Herrero Martínez, was Secretary of the City Council as reflected in a unusual certification on municipal seals of 1876, signed by the Mayor Joaquín Ignacio Ivorra and the Secretary (1). Apparently Daniel was dismissed in the national and local political swings of 1887 which, coupled with the death of his wife and one of his children, would lead to the Herrero Compañy family moving to Barcelona where Daniel would embark on a judicial career.
The origins of Sofía Compañy Sáenz, his mother, are found in Carmona (Seville) and Benilloba, a branch that leads to the Ivorra, Reja (Reig) and Company of Benifallim, as well as the Mira, Beltran and Jouver of Xixona (second half of sixteenth century). Daniel’s grandfather was Onofre Martínez, born in Chiva (Valencia), who since 1823 had occupied the position of «Procurador Patrimonial» of the Revillagigedo’s Dominion, according to the admirable research carried out by Elia Gozálbez Esteve. Remote descendants of those Herrero Compañy continue treading the sidewalks of Benilloba. The Herrero benillobense lineage comes from the Herrero Peres couple that arrived from Bocairent around 1760, a saga of master stonemasons whose works include the Canal del Barranc de Cuixot and whose last active mason was Vicente Herrero Plá, who died in 1975.
My interest in the history of Benilloba led me to discover the existence of Lieutenant Colonel Herrero Compañy via the research developed by E. García-Municio on Freemasonry, E. Mollá Carchano and H. Raguer (focused mainly on the historical figure of the General Domingo Batet Mestres).
From student to Lieutenant Colonel
After entering the Academy of Infantry of Toledo in 1899, Arturo Herrero Compañy began a military career as a second lieutenant of Infantry that would take him mainly to Palma de Mallorca, Melilla and Otumba (Africa), Barcelona, Madrid and Burgos. Captain in 1912, he rose to the rank of Infantry Commander for merits in 1925 (seniority from 1922) and as a Lieutenant Colonel, as early as 1935. Throughout his 34-year military career he received multiple medals such as Medal of Melilla (1910), Cross of 1st class of the Military Merit with red badge (1912), Cross of 1st Class of Military Merit with white badge (1920) or Medal of 1st class of the Spanish Red Cross (1934) (2). According to the annotations in the Official Gazette of the Ministry of War, Arturo exercised the functions of professor, instructor, battalion standard-bearer, battalion assistant, captain cashier or chief adjutant, and was also appointed as a member, defender and prosecutor in various court martials.
Mª Dolores Barrachina Vila, la senyoreta, and one of her brothers after whom Arturo was named were his godparents and, according to his military sheet, he continued visiting his town. In 1934 year he married Amalia Abreu Cens at the family-owned Mas Roquer, an event published in La Vanguardia (May 30, section «Life of Society») (3), as well as the bachelor party the previous day, publications that denote the social space in which Arturo developed. His professional career didn’t go unnoticed and he received the homage of our people when the City Council of Benilloba, in an act dated December 12, 1935, dedicated the current Plaça de la Font to «Arturo Herrero».
“Sin dilación se acuerda dedicar al Teniente Coronel, Ayudante de Campo del General Batet, Jefe del Cuarto Militar del Presidente de la República, D. Arturo Herrero Compañy, la hoy Plaza de la Fuente, la que se denominará en lo sucesivo “Plaza de Arturo Herrero”, por tratarse de un militar distinguido a quien el vecindario le estima y quiere y ser además nacido en esta Villa.”
/ «Without delay, it is agreed to dedicate to the Lieutenant Colonel, Adjutant to General Batet, Chief of the Military Chamber of the President of the Republic, Mr. Arturo Herrero Compañy, the square today’s known as Plaza de la Fuente, which will henceforth be referred to as «Plaza de Arturo Herrero «, because he is a distinguished military man whom the citizens esteem and love and he was also born in this Villa.»
Under the nickname of Cavour (possible tribute to the Count of Cavour, diplomat and architect of Italy’s unification), Arturo Herrero Compañy was an active member of Spanish freemasonry, first in Barcelona (Logia Fénix No. 381) and as a founding member of «The Children of the African «of Melilla, 1922. In the founding of the lodge, the military stood out, representative of the role they played at area at the time. It was later the object of extreme surveillance by the commanders and its doors were closed with Arturo as President. In my readings resonate the echoes of the Rif War and the disaster of Annual, bloody actions in pursuit of «civilisation» and the colonisation of Moroccan territory (4). General Batet would also be accusedof being a Freemason, without any proof, another of the arguments used during the Franco dictatorship to point to a supposed Judeo-Masonic conspiracy, responsible for national evils.
According to the Military Yearbook of Spain, in 1928 the already Commander of Infantry Herrero Compañy acted as personal assistant to General Rodríguez Pedré. In December 1931, he was appointed Adjutant to General Batet Mestres, commanding the Fourth Organic Division and Command of Barcelona since the previous month, and thus was reported in La Vanguardia:
Ayer tomó posesión de su cargo de ayudante del general Batet, nuestro particular amigo el comandante de Infantería don Arturo Herrero Company, quien fué presentado a los periodistas por el mismo comandante militar jefe de la división.
El señor Herrero, con la amabilidad en él característica, dedicó a la Prensa frases de afectuoso elogio y se ofreció a los reporteros en su nuevo cargo. (5)
/ Yesterday, our particular friend, the Infantry commander, Mr. Arturo Herrero Company, took up his position as Adjutant to General Batet, and was presented to the journalists by the same military commander in charge of the division.
Mr. Herrero, with the kindness characteristic of him, dedicated to the press phrases of affectionate praise and volunteered to the reporters in his new position.
The events of 1934
On September 23 a state of alarm is declared throughout Spain; after the formation of the new government of Lerroux on October 3 declared the general strike; in Asturias and Madrid leftish militants and workers rise up against the centre-right government; and two days later the government plans to declare a state of war. General Batet is in contact with President Alejandro Lerroux and the Minister of War, Diego Hidalgo Durán, and refuses to receive orders from ministerial adviser Francisco Franco. Despite having achieved autonomy under the Second Republic, Lluís Companys, President of the Generalitat de Catalunya, declared after 8:00 pm:
“En aquesta hora solemne, en nom del poble i del Parlament, el Govern que presideixo assumeix totes les facultats del Poder a Catalunya, proclama l’Estat Català de la República Federal Espanyola…”
/ «In this solemn hour, in the name of the people and the Parliament, the Govern that I preside over assumes all faculties of power in Catalonia, proclaims the Estat Català of the Federal Republic of Spain …»
Batet did not comply with the requirement to place himself at the service of the Generalitat, he proclaimed the state of war and through a plan of rapid and effective action, with minimal violence-unlike the brutality led by Colonel Yagüe in Asturias-, managed to get Companys to surrender at dawn on October 7th. Warships and legionaries sent by Franco and not requested by Batet would arrive at the port of Barcelona once the revolt was controlled, images that would be useful in the defamatory campaign against the general orchestrated by Franco. According to the historian H. Raguer, Franco would appropriate the files on the Batet, Franco and Hidalgo talks about the events of October 5 and 6, 1934, fuel for the obnoxious black legend that would haunt General Batet. Franco’s manifest hatred of Batet would begin with the criticisms that Batet, at the time Colonel, directed at the then Commander Franco:
“Oficial como éste, que pide la laureada y no se le concede, donde con tanta facilidad se ha dado, porque sólo se realizó el cumplimiento de su deber, ya está militarmente calificado” (6)
/ «Officer like this one, who asks for the laureate and it is not granted, where it has been so easily given, because only the fulfilment of his duty was done, he is already militarily qualified»
These words are part of the Picasso File, addressed in 1923 to the Minister of War, Niceto Alcalá Zamora, about the professional and moral degradation of officers of the Spanish Army in Morocco that would eventually implicate the king himself, Alfonso XIII.
General Batet would receive the Grand Cross of San Fernando (la laureada/the laureate) for the events of October 1934 that would mean the end of his career in Catalonia. Unfortunately, the details of the participation of Commander Herrero are not known. The close professional relationship that they had for years in Barcelona, Madrid and Burgos would indicate how strong was General Batet’s trust in him. Unlike the famous documentary collection Batet, located in the Monestir de Poblet, I do not know of any hand-written documentation where my admired Lieutenant Colonel recorded his perception of the events in which he had participated. The writer García-Municio de Lucas in his recent study on the Army and Masonry mentions in the sheet of Herrero Compañy:
“Durante los sucesos de octubre de 1934 ‘prestó servicios extraordinarios contribuyendo con su distinguida actuación al restablecimiento del orden’”.
/ «During the events of October 1934 ‘he rendered extraordinary services contributing with his distinguished performance to the restoration of order'»
Alcalá Zamora, President of the Republic since the end of 1931, would appoint General Batet as Chief of the Military Chamber of the Presidency in March 1935, a position he would carry until his replacement by Manuel Azaña Díaz, -historians refer to resentment towards Batet after his arrest in Barcelona-. Batet and Herrero accompanied President Alcalá Zamora on his official trips and would even share the summer break at La Granja.
Burgos, June 1936
Five weeks before the failed coup d’état that would take Spain to the Civil War, Batet was appointed head of the Sixth Organic Division, an unenviable position within the coup environment that predominated in Burgos and Pamplona. In this city there was a brigade led by General Mola Vidal, El Director of the conspiracy, object of strong suspicions by the republican government presided by Casares Quiroga. Both soldiers were watching each other and there is evidence of several meetings, one in the Monastery of Irache on July 10th, accompanied by their field assistants, Lieutenant Colonel Arturo Herrero Compañy and Commander Emiliano Fernández Cordón. H. Raguer relates in his work «El General Batet» that Batet already knew that Mola was going to revolt and Mola knew that Batet would remain loyal to the Republic. The latter wanted to convince Mola of the madness that would mean any military movement and at the end of the meeting Batet asked his word of honour that he would not rise, something that Mola conceded when referring to not being engaged «in any adventure».
In his memoirs Martínez Barrio, president after the flight of Casares Quiroga, reconstructed the conversation he had with Batet on the night of July 18th, 1936:
“Hablaba el infortunado y caballeroso general Batet.
-Don Diego, mi subordinación y adhesión a la República es la de siempre. Donde estaba, estoy, a disposición del gobierno y del poder legítimo. Lo triste es que aquí ya no soy nada, y mi autoridad ha quedado reducida a la que ejerzo sobre alguno de mis ayudantes.”
/ «The unfortunate and gentlemanly general Batet spoke.
– Don Diego, my subordination and adhesion to the Republic is the same as always. Where I was, I am, at the disposal of the government and the legitimate power. The sad thing is that here I am nothing, and my authority has been reduced to the one I exercise over some of my assistants.»
Neither arguments nor threats succeeded in convincing Batet and he was arrested with Herrero by treason and they were both led first to the San Marcial barracks and on July 26, 1936, to the Central Prison of Burgos. Despite the supposed widespread appreciation and the multiple efforts in his favor, the influence of Franco went further because he signed Batet’s expulsion from the army in December. General Batet would be executed in Burgos on February 18, 1937, two days after Franco noted «informed» in the court martial sentence that sentenced him to death by adhesion to the rebellion. Among its defenders, Miquel Ribas de Pina, Colonel of Artillery who would, summarily and with retroactivity, be relieved of his position after having included in his conclusions and request of Batet’s acquittal the art. 237 of the Code of Military Justice:
“Son reos del delito de rebelión los QUE SE ALCEN EN ARMAS contra la Constitución del Estado Republicano, contra el Presidente de la República, la Asamblea Constituyente, los Cuerpos Colegisladores o el GOBIERNO CONSTITUCIONAL Y LEGÍTIMO”.
/ «They are guilty of the crime of rebellion those who TAKE UP ARMS against the Constitution of the Republican State, against the President of the Republic, the Constituent Assembly, the Co-legislators or the CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGITIMATE GOVERNMENT».
Arturo Herrero Compañy did not have the right to a trial before any court because after refusing to join the «redeeming movement» he would end up in the Burgos prison from which he would be «sacado/taken out» to be shot. The theory about the place of murder and the remains of Arturo Herrero Compañy varies from one book to another:
“Batet era el jefe de la División de Burgos y se opuso al alzamiento por lealtad a la República… pero sus subordinados rebeldes le detuvieron. Y gracias: su coronel ayudante, Herrero Company, fue asesinado por los oficiales golpistas y arrojado a una cuneta” (relato de Xavier Lacosta) (7).
“Detención de su Ayudante Sr. Herrero. Este, a pesar de la negativa del Director de la Cárcel de Burgos a entregarlo, unos individuos consiguen llevárselo y al día siguiente aparece muerto” (palabras de Trinidad Lacanal, antiguo ayudante del general Batet). “Su ayudante, Herrero, detenido, fue asesinado al día siguiente y hallado a pocos metros del Penal” (palabras del yerno del general Batet, Francesc Carbó) (8).
/ «Batet was the head of the Burgos Division and he opposed the uprising for loyalty to the Republic … but his rebellious subordinates stopped him. And thank you: his Colonel Adjutant, Herrero Company, was killed by the coup officers and thrown into a gutter « (Xavier Lacosta’s story).
«Detention of his assistant Mr. Herrero. Him, despite the refusal of the Director of the Burgos Prison to deliver him, some individuals manage to take him away and the next day he appears dead » (words of Trinidad Lacanal, former assistant of General Batet). «His adjutant, Herrero, was arrested, was killed the next day and was found a few meters from the prison» (words of General Batet’s son-in-law, Francesc Carbó)
The mass graves on mount of Estépar (Burgos)
A 6th of February the phone rang at home, a researcher from the Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory of Burgos (ARMH) was calling to let me know that the remains of my Benilloba’s hero par excellence had probably been located in the mont of Estépar (Burgos). It was a conversation full of emotion and respect for Lieutenant Colonel Herrero and the thousands of defenders of Freedom and Democracy who were shot and abandoned in the outskirts and ditches of so many towns in Spain. At that time I discovered «Monte de Estépar. Following the steps of the memory», an initiative around the recovery of the historical memory, the exhumation and the dignification of common graves scattered in the place of the mount of Estépar in Burgos. It was an effort of the Coordinator for the Recovery of the Historical Memory of Burgos (CRMH), the Center for Contemporary Creation Espacio Tangente and the Asociación Cultural Denuncia.
I was able to see part of Arturo’s file in the Central Prison of Burgos, where it appears:
“Expediente procesal de Arturo Herrero Companys 235/6/1 Natural de Benilloba Provincia de Alicante – vecino de Burgos Provincia de Burgos, hijo de Daniel y de Sofía, edad 54 años profesión Tte Coronel de Infantería, instrucción tiene estado casado hijos núm de éllos-, antecedentes- ingresa por – vez, Domicilio Capitanía general. Libertad.
26 julio 936. Vicisitudes. Ingresa en esta Prisión, procedente de la calle, entregado por la fuerza armada, en concepto de detenido, a disposición de la autoridad, con orden de la superioridad, a quien se participa
9 sepbe. 936: Es puesto en libertad este detenido en virtud de Orden que se une al expediente del penado Félix López Echezarreta” (9)
/ «Procedural file of Arturo Herrero Companys 235/6/1; Natural of Benilloba Province of Alicante – neighbour of Burgos Province of Burgos, son of Daniel and Sofía, age 54 years; Lieutenant Colonel of Infantry profession, instruction has; state married; children nr of them -, records- ; enters by-time, Domicile General Captaincy. Freedom
July 26th, 936 Vicissitudes. He enters this Prison, coming from the street, delivered by armed forces, as a detainee, at the disposal of the authority, with order of superiority, who is made aware.
9 sep. 936: This detainee is set free by virtue of an Order that is added to the file of the convicted Felix Lopez Echezarreta«
A «saca» is a false release issued by the person in charge of a prison with the order of the military authority and the destination is not the «Libertad/Freedom» written down in Arturo’s file but death by a shot in the skull. Researchers point out that the sacas in Burgos began on August 2 to end on October 12 and in the place of Estépar would reach at least 13 with a total of 285 «liberados/released».
The names of all the individuals who suffered «la saca/the removal» on that fateful day, September 9th, 1936, would be noted in the file of the same person, Felix López Echezarreta, who was also murdered. Thanks to the formidable research work carried out by a multidisciplinary team of the CRMH Coordinator of Burgos and the Aranzadi Science Society, under the direction of the forensic anthropologist Francisco Etxeberria Gabilondo and the Burgos archaeologist Juan Montero, we know that mass grave No. 3 of Estépar – among the four exhumed in 2014-2015, with a total of 96 bodies – was composed of 27 individuals shot dead on the same day. The identity of its first member, Plácido Pérez Barriuso, was determined thanks to the wedding alliance with an inscription that he managed to keep hidden and the identification of the family DNA (10). Please visit the blog https://cronicasapiedefosa.wordpress.com to read the full story.
En“Identificados otros cuatro fusilados en Estépar cuyos expedientes decían que habían muerto enfermos en prisión”, un artículo publicado en el Diario de Burgos sobre la fosa nº 3 (11), el periodista Pérez Barredo recoge:
“Y se han topado con que aquella fue una saca bien especial, porque a excepción de uno, el resto de los individuos ya estaban en la prisión antes de la sublevación militar de julio de 1936 que desencadenó la sangrienta represión… Esto es, eran presos comunes, sí, pero fueron depurados por su ideología.
Pero estaba la excepción, el número 22. Ese no era preso común ni tenía ideas izquierdistas. Se trata, nada menos, que de un militar. Y no de uno cualquiera: completaba esa saca el teniente coronel Arturo Herrera Company, el ayudante de Domingo Batet, el general que se mantuvo leal a la República. Herrera también; eso, y el hecho de que era masón, fueron argumentos suficientes para que fuera pasado por las armas y malenterrado en Estépar. Desde la CRMH de Burgos esperan que en los próximos meses las muestras de los 22 fusilados que completaban la fosa den resultados positivos una vez cotejados con los familiares que, tras arduas pesquisas, han conseguido ser localizados por todo el país…”
/ «Identified four others shot in Estépar whose files said that they had died from illness while in prison», an article published in the Diario de Burgos about mass grave No. 3 (11), the journalist Pérez Barredo collects:
«And they have come across that this was a very special saca/removal, because except for one, the rest of the individuals were already in prison before the military uprising of July 1936 that triggered the bloody repression … That is, they were common prisoners, yes, but they were exterminated due to their ideology.
But there was the exception, the number 22. That was not a common prisoner nor had he leftist ideas. It is, nothing less, than a military man. And not just anybody: the saca was completed by the Lieutenant Colonel Arturo Herrera Company, the adjutant to Domingo Batet, the general who remained loyal to the Republic. Herrera also; that, and the fact that he was a freemason, were enough arguments for him to be put through arms and miserably buried in Estépar. From the CRMH of Burgos they hope that in the coming months the samples of the 22 people executed that completed the grave will give positive results once compared with the relatives who, after arduous researches, have managed to be located all over the country … «
As Arturo’s third great-grandniece, it would have been an honour to help identify the remains marked with No. 22 – Lieutenant Colonel Herrero Compañy’s place in the «saca» of the Central Prison of Burgos on September 9, 1936- . However, the team of experts from the Legal and Forensic Medicine Laboratory of the Polytechnic University of the Basque Country ruled out that my DNA would be useful, given the distance in our parentage.
Even then, due to my fondness for genealogy, I have been contributing to the research conducted by the ARMH, especially with Chus Barcina of the CRMH in Burgos. The search of the living descendants of Daniel Herrero Martínez and Sofía Compañy Sáenz has taken us from Barcelona back to Valencian lands, Sueca and the city of Valencia. As long as identification by means of family DNA is not granted, the remains of Lieutenant Colonel Herrero will continue to rest in the columbarium built in the cemetery of Estépar (Burgos).
The figure of Arturo Herrero Compañy has fallen into oblivion and I have found my duty to help illuminate his memory on the 83rd anniversary of his death. It is my hope that other people and institutions will also assume the civic and social duty of historical memory. May the publication of this article serve as a simple tribute to a remarkable Benilloba-born man who, despite coming from a parochial small town, managed to become part of the small circles of political and military power in Spain and had an exceptional role in crucial times of our dramatic and painful recent history.
Mercedes Camps Herrero
Benilloba, July 2019
- Gozálbez Esteve, Elia: El Señorío de Benilloba. Obra social de la Caja de Ahorros de Alicante y Murcia, Alcoi, Gráficas Ciudad, S.A., 1985, pág. 211.
- Diario Oficial del Ministerio de la Guerra, 17/11/1912, pág. 452, http://bibliotecavirtualdefensa.es/BVMDefensa/i18n/catalogo_imagenes/grupo.cmd?path=9330
- La Vanguardia, Edición de 30 mayo 1934, pág. 8 http://hemeroteca.lavanguardia.com/preview/1934/05/30/pagina-8/33158160/pdf.html
- García-Municio de Lucas, Ezequiel Ignacio: Militares ilustrados, liberales y masones (de 1782 a 1936), Ediciones del Arte Real, 2018.
- La Vanguardia, Edición de 2 diciembre 1931, pág. 11 http://hemeroteca.lavanguardia.com/edition.html?bd=02&bm=12&by=1931&x=46&y=12&page=2
- Raguer, Hilari: El general Batet. Biblioteca Abat Oliba, Publicacions de l’abadia de Monstserrat, 2012, pág. 64.
- Lacosta, Xavier: Batet, Franco y Ribas de Pina. http://cort.as/-K9PU, acceso en junio 2019
- Ibidem nota 6, Raguer, H…: El general Batet, pág. 287.
- Sign. P.C.B – 236/9 Prisión Central de Burgos Caja nº 235, Expte. nº 6, Herrero Companys, Arturo.
- Arroita Lafuente, Aiyoa y Domínguez Varona, Jesús Pablo: Plácido Pérez Barriuso, el primer identificado de las fosas de Estépar, http://xurl.es/7tbl9
- Pérez Barredo, R. “Identificados otros cuatro fusilados en Estépar cuyos expedientes decían que habían muerto enfermos en prisión”, Diario de Burgos de 4 nov. 2018 http://cort.as/-K9PH
- Arroita Lafuente, Aiyoa y Domínguez Varona, Jesús Pablo: Plácido Pérez Barriuso, el primer identificado de las fosas de Estépar, http://cort.as/-K9PP.
- García-Municio de Lucas, Ezequiel Ignacio: Militares ilustrados, liberales y masones (de 1782 a 1936), Ediciones del Arte Real, 2018.
- Gozálbez Esteve, Elia: El Señorío de Benilloba. Obra social de la Caja de Ahorros de Alicante y Murcia, Alcoi, Gráficas Ciudad, S.A., 1985.
- Lacosta, Xavier: Batet, Franco y Ribas de Pina, http://cort.as/-K9PU.
- Moga Romero, Vicente y Perpén Rueda, Adoración: Orígenes ideológicos de los talleres masónicos contemporáneos en Melilla: Militares y Masonería (1893-1927), Universidad de Granada.
- Pérez Barredo, R. “Identificados otros cuatro fusilados en Estépar cuyos expedientes decían que habían muerto enfermos en prisión”, Diario de Burgos de 4 nov. 2018 http://cort.as/-K9PH.
- Raguer, Hilari: El general Batet. Biblioteca Abat Oliba, Publicacions de l’abadia de Monstserrat, 2012 (Con mi especial agradecimiento).
- Newspaper archives y archives:
- Anuario Militar de España
- Arxiu, Ajuntament de Benilloba
- Diario Oficial del Ministerio de la Guerra
- La Vanguardia
- Las Provincias
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